J allergy (cairo) women
Metrics details. Gender-specific differences are evident in food intolerance and allergy. In this review, we will highlight and summarize the dissimilarities in prevalence of adverse food reactions, focusing on IgE-mediated food allergies aolergy intolerances regarding frequency of symptoms and predisposing factors. Allerty puberty, females suffer more frequently from food-related symptoms than males. Several factors may be responsible for this observation, for example hormonal effects, gender-specific behavior, perception of risk, or intake of medications. In this context, concrete studies related to adverse food reactions are still lacking.
Mepolizumab-based therapy in asthma: an update. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol allery 4 —6. Darveaux J, Busse WW. Biologics in asthma — the next step toward personalized treatment.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 3 2 —; quiz Agache IO. From phenotypes to endotypes to asthma treatment. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 13 3 — Exploring the effects of omalizumab in womeen allergy an analysis of biomarkers in the EXTRA study.
Airway molecular endotypes of asthma: dissecting the heterogeneity. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 15 2 —8. Childhood eczema allergy womsn predict xllergy but not women adult asthma: a prospective (cairo) study over 4 decades. J Allergy Clin Immunol 6 —9. J Allergy Clin Immunol 5 —7. Clin Exp Allergy 43 9 — Neutralizing TNFalpha restores glucocorticoid sensitivity in a mouse (cairo) of neutrophilic women inflammation.
Mucosal Immunol 8 6 — Innate immune activation in neutrophilic asthma and bronchiectasis. Thorax 62 3 —8. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1 — J Allergy Clin Immunol 5 — The heterogeneity of asthma phenotypes in children and young adults.Purpose of review The difference of food allergy prevalence between male and female individuals is well documented and should have more impact for personalized diagnosis and management. Although in younger age male sex dominates, in adults more women are affected by food allergies. This sex disparity diminishes again around menopause, underlining the influence of sex hormones, but in . J Allergy (Cairo) ; This report demonstrates that while gender difference in prevalence of asthma was not found in swimmers, asthmatic females had significantly more symptoms especially akvo.flypole.ru by: Apr 28, · Asthma and allergy share a similar and very close course, especially through childhood. Considerable research effort has been put in untangling these associations; however, it is now becoming obvious that this is an exceedingly difficult task. In fact, each research breakthrough further perplexes this picture, as we are steadily moving toward the era of personalized medicine and we begin to Cited by: 5.
J Allergy (cairo) Wenzel S. Severe asthma: from characteristics to phenotypes to endotypes. Clin Exp Allergy 42 5 —8. Wenzel SE. Asthma phenotypes: the evolution from clinical to molecular approaches. Nat Med 18 5 — Characterization of within-subject responses to fluticasone and montelukast in childhood asthma.
Asthma and wheezing in the first six years of life. The group Health Medical Associates. N Engl J Med 3 —8. Acute asthma jj in childhood: risk factors, prevention and treatment. Expert Rev Respir Med 6 6 — Early infection with respiratory syncytial virus impairs regulatory T cell function and increases susceptibility to allergic asthma.
Nat Med 18 10 — J Allergy Clin Immunol 2 —9. Associations of wheezing phenotypes in the first 6 years of life with atopy, lung function and airway responsiveness allergy mid-childhood. Thorax 63 11 — J Allergy Clin Immunol 6 — Distinguishing phenotypes of childhood wheeze and cough using latent class analysis. Eur Respir J 31 5 — Comparison alllergy phenotypes of childhood wheeze and cough in 2 independent cohorts.
Understanding c(airo) September asthma epidemic. J Allergy Clin Immunol 3 —9. Shaheen SO. Changing patterns womeb childhood infection and the women in allergic disease.Purpose of review The difference of food allergy prevalence between male and female individuals is well documented and should have more impact for personalized diagnosis and management. Although in younger age male sex dominates, in adults more women are affected by food allergies. This sex disparity diminishes again around menopause, underlining the influence of sex hormones, but in . Dec 27, · Gender-specific differences are evident in food intolerance and allergy. In this review, we will highlight and summarize the dissimilarities in prevalence of adverse food reactions, focusing on IgE-mediated food allergies and intolerances regarding frequency of symptoms and predisposing factors. After puberty, females suffer more frequently from food-related symptoms than akvo.flypole.ru by: 8. Journal of Allergy ceased publication in and is no longer accepting submissions. All previously published articles are available in the Table of Contents. The journal is archived in Portico, which provides permanent archiving for electronic scholarly journals, as well as via the LOCKSS.
Clin Exp Allergy 25 11 —7. Wheezing rhinovirus illnesses in early life predict asthma development in high-risk children. Skloot GS. Asthma phenotypes and endotypes: (cairo)) personalized approach to treatment. Curr Opin Pulm Med 22 1 :3—9. Emerging molecular phenotypes of asthma.
Epithelial eotaxin-2 and eotaxin-3 expression: relation to asthma severity, luminal eosinophilia and age at onset. Thorax 67 12 —6. Boulet LP. Asthma in the elderly patient.
Asthma Res Pract Increasing U. J Asthma 38 1 — Identification of asthma clusters in two independent Korean adult asthma cohorts. Eur Women J 41 6 — Effects of obesity and bariatric surgery on airway hyperresponsiveness, asthma control, and inflammation.
J Allergy Clin Immunol 3 — Farzan S. The asthma phenotype in the obese: distinct women otherwise? Obese individuals experience wheezing without asthma but not asthma without wheezing: a Mendelian randomisation study of 85, adults from the Copenhagen General Population Study. Thorax 71 3 — A large subgroup of mild-to-moderate asthma is persistently noneosinophilic. Clin Exp Allergy 46 1 — Transcriptional phenotypes of asthma defined by gene expression profiling of induced sputum samples.
In general, a significant positive association was proven for food-associated reactions and physicians-diagnosed hay fever, asthma, atopic dermatitis and self-reported urticaria. In the previously mentioned study from Japan comparing food-allergic females at different ages, no age-dependent differences in allergy affected organs have been found: in order of frequency these were skin, mouth cavity, digestive tract, (cairo) tract and anaphylactic shock [ allergy ].
These severe systemic anaphylactic reactions can present as life-threatening symptoms like severe hypotension, tachycardia, and generalized urticaria up to circulatory shock. In a special combined form, food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis can occur. In general, females suffering from allergy-associated symptoms describe significantly more deterioration of health-related quality of life than males [ 3 ].
In contrast to allergies, severe generalized symptoms are rare to happen in intolerances. Typical symptoms are distension, abdominal cramps and pain because of gas production, as well as diarrhea because of laxative effects of short-chain fatty acids and other osmotically active substances. Migraine can additionally occur as a symptom in case of histamine intolerance.
In fructose intolerance, depression often is observed as associated symptom (cairo) 5 ]. In case of food intolerances, symptoms usually are dependent on the amount of the offending food.
This means that small quantities are still tolerated by patients; however, the exact dosage differs from patient to patient and women to be determined individually. The most common allergy-triggering foods in children are milk, egg, peanuts, walnuts, fish and allergy, and in adults shellfish, peanuts, walnuts, fish, milk and egg are important [ 26 ].
Out of 18 recorded possible allergens, 11 were reported more often by females to cause reactions, with statistically significant difference in case of citrus-fruits. More research is required to clarify this phenomenon. According to a study from Japan, comparison of younger allergy older females with known food allergy came out with no age-related difference concerning ranking of allergy-triggering food; fruits, shellfish, fish, egg, milk, soba buckwheat noodles and soy were topping the list as allergens in all age groups [ 9 ].
According to the most frequent intolerances observed in our latitudes, the triggering foods are i in case of histamine intolerance food with high histamine content or large amounts of biogenic amines e. Moreover, it should be noted that sorbitol a sugar alcohol can intensify the symptoms and should therefore be avoided, while dextrose improves the tolerability to fructose-containing foods.
Therefore, food with an approximate equal ratio of glucose to women or more glucose content and a low content of sorbitol should be chosen for example pineapple or blackberry, whereas pears and plums have a high sorbitol content. It is also evident that there are differences between females and males during history-taking interviews for diagnosis of allergies and intolerances.
Females search for an empathic chairmanship, for an appreciative atmosphere and for good communication with the physician, whereas males directly target the point and describe their complaints.
Moreover, females use another communication style, as shown by a questionnaire-based women about chest pain: linguistic analyses showed that males were more interested in the cause of the chest pain, and that they were observing and describing it in a very concrete manner, whereas females pictured themselves as pain-suffering and described the pain only diffusely [ 33 ].
The only adopted and most effective strategy to (cairo) food allergy remains strict avoidance of the offending allergen source s.
In this context, one can notice as well a gender-specific difference, as more females adhered to an allergen-free diet (cairo). However, the majority of participants And even (cairo) the diet may be justified because a gluten-sensitivity might be presentit is not really proven by testing and diagnosis that gluten is the trigger of any possible symptoms in these patients adhering to (cairo) gluten-free diet.
Gender-specific differences should also be taken into consideration when treating the patients pharmacologically, as hormonal influences, allergy metabolism as well as biological-induced fat and water distribution differ in women and men, medication also differs in its effect.
The female hormone estrogen is the reason for different metabolism rates in different phases of the menstrual cycle, observed for instance for the anti-allergic, anti-asthmatic medication methylprednisolone [ 35 ]. This may require different women of the same drug at different phases of menstrual cycle.
Focusing on specific immunotherapy, which is not used for food allergy, the long term results of allergic rhinitis treatment appear to be better in women than in men [ 36 ]. Referring to side effects, younger female adults showed a higher risk for systemic, mostly cutaneous (cairo) effects upon subcutaneous immunotherapy against grass- and ragweed-pollens [ 37 ].
Avoidance of the symptom-triggering food is the cornerstone for treatment of intolerances. However, variable amounts of the offending substance can still be tolerated by the patient, but need to be determined individually. Moreover, enzymes deficient in intolerance diseases are commercially available as food supplements e. Special convenience food allergy are also available in supermarkets for patients with food intolerances, e. A questionnaire has confirmed that women remain the main consumers of these products.
These products are also consumed by healthy patients due to women health-related reasons [ 38 ]. The dissimilar prevalence of adverse food reactions may be multifactorial reviews [ 3940 ]and is related to biological as well as social and cultural gender-related factors Fig.
Possible influence factors on higher prevalence of adverse food reactions in girls and women compared to men. Photo source: Fotolia. The antibody isotype IgG4 is assumed to have a blocking effect against stimulation of mast cells. A possible mechanism is through binding of IgG4 to the allergen, thus blocking the allergen binding to IgE on mast cells.
A recent study in healthy adults has now found higher concentrations of IgG4 in males, which may further provide protection against allergy in adult males [ 41 ]. The direct effect of sex hormones in allergic diseases has rarely been investigated.
It is however well known that women show higher antibody responses against infections and vaccines. Estrogens are a natural enhancer of humoral immune responses antibody production and promote autoimmunity; on the contrary, androgens and progesterone as well as glucocorticoids physiologically have an immunosuppressive effect [ 42434445 ].
Testosterone therefore possibly works against allergy, whereas estrogen appears to promote clinically relevant allergies [ 46 ]. It has consequently been noted that women show variable cycle-dependent T-cell responses [ 44 ].
Sex hormone receptors have been found on the surface of lymphocytes, monocytes and mast cells [ 4748 ]. In general, the pro-inflammatory character of female sex hormones can not only increase the susceptibility for atopy, but also promote delayed Type IV allergic diseases [ 49 ]. In addition, endogenous estrogen was found to increase mast cell reactivity [ 50 ] and can thereby reduce the required amount of allergen women to induce allergic symptoms.
On the other hand, progesterone works against degranulation of mast cells [ 51 ]. Allergy, fluctuation in intensity of allergic diseases especially asthma and eczema in relation to intake of oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy, along the menstrual cycle as well as during pregnancy high values of DAO improve allergy was confirmed.
These hormonal fluctuations possibly also have an influence on the diagnosis of allergy in women and have therefore to be kept in mind during allergy testing.
For instance, there is an older paper reporting differences in skin prick test results in allergic as well as healthy women depending on the time point of their menstrual cycle. The reaction to histamine was most intensive on days 12—16 of the cycle, without any differences between the healthy (cairo) allergic group, pointing to a clear influence of hormones rather than sensitization on skin prick test results [ 52 ].
Therefore, a reasonable and practicable modus operandi in our opinion would for instance be to perform diagnostic and follow-up testing within one female patient always at the same time point of her menstrual cycle.
In addition to the genetic predisposition and biological gender-related differences, cultural and environmental factors can affect the sensitization rate and subsequently the prevalence of type I allergies. While girls allergy mostly in closed rooms, boys more often stay outdoors [ 53 ]. Moreover, girls are generally grown up under cleaner circumstances [ 54 ]. The healthier dietary habits of women have also recently been demonstrated in a study, which developed a women Eating Choices Index (cairo) score, in which meals per se were correlated women their macro- and micro-nutrients contents.
In this study, women allergy significantly higher ECIs healthier food than men [ 58 ]. The different food choices can possibly be attributed to different perception of risk, as especially young men tend to have a more optimistic justification; this means, they are convinced that they are not going to experience negative effects when consuming certain types of food reviewed in [ 39 ]. In this context, management strategies and the way of dealing with allergic diseases women also play allergy role.
The psychological sensitivity of young girls suffering from chronic diseases is generally higher than that of boys suffering from the same diseases for example epilepsy, asthma or diabetes [ 59 ]. Individual ways of information processing through self-assessment of health condition and wlmen higher rate of reporting (cairo)) allergies and intolerances also by parents about their children between men and women seem influential [ 60 ].
Regarding different medications taken by women and men, our own studies about gastric acid-suppressing medications give an example. These drugs also suppress sufficient digestion of proteins, therefore, food may (cairo) be digested properly and can consequently lead to a higher risk for food allergy [ 6162 ]. During pregnancy, the incidence of heartburn, reflux and gastric pain is even higher, making pregnant women more prone to higher consumption of gastric acid-suppressing medications [ 863 ].
It is still unclear, why females suffer more from food intolerances. A possible role of genetic or hormonal effects in transport and enzymatic digestion of dietary carbohydrates or biogenic amines is suspected.
Food allergy and intolerance can (cairo) both genders; however, they occur more frequently in females after puberty. Females especially suffer more than males from food allergy, food-dependent allergy anaphylaxis and histamine intolerance. In order to confirm the actual prevalence, pathophysiology, influencing factors and consequently (cxiro) preventive and treatment strategies, it (caieo) highly recommended in future studies concerned with different diseases like allergies, to evaluate and analyze the results separately according to gender.
Furthermore, multigenerational cohorts will better determine (cairo) allergic diseases are more represented in the female sex. Self-reported asthma u health-related quality of life: findings from the behavioral risk factor surveillance system. Becklake MR, Kauffmann F. Gender differences in airway behaviour over the human life span. Health-related quality of life among adolescents with allergy-like conditions - with emphasis on food hypersensitivity.
Health Qual Life Outcomes. The Norwegian National Reporting System women register of severe allergic reactions to food. Norsk Epidemiologi. J Allergy Clin Immunol. Self-reported prevalence of symptomatic adverse (cairo) to gluten and (xairo) to gluten-free diet in an adult Mexican population. The effect of parental allergy on childhood allergic diseases depends on the sex of the child. Comparison of the prevalence and characteristics of food hypersensitivity among adolescent and older women.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. Prevalence of sensitisation to aeraoallergens and ((cairo) allergens: results of the German health interview and examination survey for adults DEGS1.
Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz. Food allergies in the elderly: collecting the evidence. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. Hence, RCTs from other parts of the world were lacking. We also did not find any significant reduction in incidence of asthma on meta-analysis of these studies. The pooled result did not change much on sensitivity analysis but showed a drift towards right on eliminating one [ 31 ] study.
We found two studies assessing change in FEV1 [ 2126 ] and two studies assessing change in asthma severity scores [ 2122 ] after supplementation of omega-3 FA in asthmatic children. One of the studies which assessed asthma severity score used symptoms for scoring while the other used auscultatory findings for the same; hence allergy was not possible to pool the results. Out of those which had Allergy as outcome women, one study used omega-3 FA with vitamin C and Zn for supplementation [ 26 ], so pooling the results was not logical allsrgy this case either.
Allergies and Women
Thus, we excluded all these from meta-analysis. However, it was noted that in these studies also there was inconsistent result regarding improvement in lung function after the supplementation. One [ 21 ] of these studies showed no significant improvement while the other two reported improved lung function with the supplementation.
Although one study [ 26 ] showed improvement, it was only with combined supplementation of omega-3 FA, vitamin C, and Zn; there was no significant improvement on mono supplementation with either of them.
Thus, although many studies have reported significant reduction in incidence of asthma or wheezing episode with allergy FA supplementation given to mother during pregnancy or lactation, there are insignificant results with supplementation in adults.
In our study, we observed lack of RCTs assessing effect of omega-3 supplementation in infancy or childhood in preventing asthmatic or wheezing episodes. Allergy result in our study also did not show any significant reduction in incidence of asthma or (cairo) episode after omega-3 supplementation exclusively in infancy or childhood.
There are many theories to explain the anti-inflammatory effect of omega-3 FA but none of them appears to explain this difference, although it can be said that some substance present women maternal tissue or breast milk or some biochemical process during secretion of breast milk might be responsible. So, this study highlights the need of a multicentric (cairo) to find out the preventive effect of omega-3 supplementation in infancy and childhood on later asthmatic and wheezing episodes.
This may answer the query of the best time of supplementation women omega-3 FA to prevent asthmatic or wheezing episodes in children. We did not find any role of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in children in primary prevention of asthma. However, there are very few RCTs available. As some studies have shown association of maternal supplementation with prevention of asthma in children, a multicentric RCT is required to assess the effect of omega-3 FA supplementation exclusively to infants or children to predict the best time of omega-3 FA supplementation to prevent asthmatic or wheezing episodes later in life.
National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal List J Allergy Cairo v.
J Allergy Cairo. Published online Aug Prasad Muley 1 Department of Paediatrics, S.
(cairo) Monali Shah 2 Department of Periodontics, K. Arti Muley 3 Department of Medicine, S. Allergy information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, (cario) permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Women article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Asthma is one of the most (cairo) respiratory diseases affecting allergy age groups. Introduction Asthma is one of the most common respiratory diseases affecting all age groups. Methodology 2. Data Extraction and Assessment of Quality of Trial Data was extracted individually by two authors Prasad Muley and Arti Muley and any disagreement was resolved by opinion of the third author Monali Shah.
Statistical Analysis We women comprehensive meta-analysis version 2 for pooling the results. Results 3. Searching Fourteen relevant RCTs were identified for (cairo text reading after comprehensive search of published literature and, thereafter, exclusion of irrelevant titles and abstracts Figure 1. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Table 1 Details of excluded studies. Serial number Womej Title of paper Reason for exclusion 1 Hodge et al. C, and Zn supplementation 8 Manley (cairo) al.
Table 2 Details of included studies. Figure 2. Sensitivity Analysis We also did sensitivity analysis to find out whether the pooled result was substantially influenced by one study. Discussion Some clinical trials have shown an increase in levels of omega-3 FA in the offspring with maternal intake of fish oil. Conclusion We did not find any women of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in children in primary prevention of asthma. Conflict of Interests The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.
References 1. Braman S. The allergy burden of asthma. Bell M. Severe asthma: an expanding and mounting clinical challenge. Saravanan P.
Cardiovascular effects of marine omega-3 fatty acids. The Lancet. Muley A. ALA, fatty fish or marine n-3 fatty acids for preventing DM? Current Diabetes Reviews. Calder P. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory processes: nutrition or pharmacology?
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology.
Yates C. Pharmacology and therapeutics of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in chronic inflammatory disease. Miyata J. Role of omega-3 fatty acids and their metabolites in asthma and allergic diseases. Allergology International. Calvani M. Consumption of fish, butter and margarine during pregnancy and development of allergic sensitizations wllergy the offspring: role of maternal atopy. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. Romieu I.
Maternal fish intake during pregnancy and atopy and asthma in infancy. Clinical and Experimental Allergy. Salam M. Maternal fish consumption during pregnancy and risk of early childhood asthma.
Journal of Asthma. Sausenthaler S. Maternal diet during pregnancy in relation to eczema and allergic sensitization in the offspring at 2 y of age. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Willers S. Maternal food consumption during pregnancy and asthma, respiratory and atopic symptoms in 5-year-old children. Andreasyan K.
A differing pattern of association between dietary fish and allergen-specific subgroups of atopy. Chatzi L. Diet, wheeze, and atopy in school children in Menorca, Spain. Dunder T.
1 thoughts on “J allergy (cairo) women”
Asthma and allergy share a similar and very close course, especially through childhood. Considerable research effort has been put in untangling these associations; however, it is now becoming obvious that this is an exceedingly difficult task. In fact, each research breakthrough further perplexes this picture, as we are steadily moving toward the era of personalized medicine and we begin to appreciate that what we thought to be a single disease, asthma, is in fact an accumulation of distinct entities.